The Science

Data, research, and behavioral models.

2Morrow's Behavior Change Engine

2Morrow’s behavior change platform draws from an array of evidence-based research from the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, University of Washington, Stanford, and other leading institutions. We also validate our algorithms and design our tools based on direct user feedback and anonymized data from 500,000 consumers. 

ACT - Acceptance & Commitment Therapy for Smoking

2MorrowQuit (formerly SmartQuit) is now a part of our 2Morrrow Health Platform. Our smoking cessation program is a cutting edge behavior change tool based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) and tested with a randomized control study in the real world. ACT was shown to outperform CBT for smoking cessation in 6 published studies across multiple platforms including mobile. It was developed in cooperation with Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center's leading researchers and draws on their years of experience in identifying how to modify addictive behaviors. The 2MorrowQuit program is the first app-based smoking cessation program that has been put through the clinical trial process and found to be effective for smoking cessation. It’s an experience that is smart, persuasive, and evidence-based.


Dr. Jonathan Bricker at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center is a leading behavioral scientist studying new ways to help smokers quit. His work using Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) resulted in the 2MorrowQuit program. He has published 5 Randomized Control Trials using ACT for smoking cessation and is also looking at other unhealthy behaviors such as those resulting in obesity.

ACBS:  Association for Contextual Behavioral Science

ACBS is an amazing worldwide research community, and a resource for anyone interested in ACT, RFT, and Contextual Behavioral Science. This site has a wealth of information, research and knowledge for anyone interested in learning more about the science and approach.

Habit Formation (Healthy Habits, My Pocket Coach)

2Morrow has integrated the work of BJ Fogg, BF Skinner and Charles Duhigg as well as studies from behavioral economics, motivation theory, contemplative science, and social psychology disciplines into the development of engaging, easy-to-use mobile apps. We use proven techniques and incorporate new theories for establishing long-term behavioral change by introducing positive habits you want in your daily life - starting small with realistic steps. With repetition, these behaviors become automatic and self-actualized. Once you begin to progress, this creates the momentum for larger changes in your life.

White Paper: Delivering On Your Good Intentions – The Foundations Of Habit-Based Behavioral Change, Elizabeth Fountain, PhD.

A few of our favorites

BJ Fogg - Watch BJ Fogg's TEDx talk on the importance of habits and check out his insightful Fogg Method for behavior change. 

Charles Duhigg wrote a fascinating book called the "Power of Habit." In this book Duhigg explains how changing simple habits can improve your life.


Selected Citations & Interesting Reading

Smoking Cessation & ACT Research

Featured: Jonathan B. Bricker, Kristin E. Mull, Julie A. Kientz, Roger Vilardaga, Laina D. Mercer, Katrina J. Akioka, Jaimee L. Heffner (October, 2014). Randomized, controlled pilot trial of a smartphone app for smoking cessation using acceptance and commitment therapy. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Volume 143, Pages 87–94.

Bricker, J., Copeland, W., & Heffner, J., (2016). Trial of an acceptance & commitment therapy smartphone application for smoking cessation among primarily low SES female smokers. (SYM19B), 26. Abstract retrieved from Society for Research on Nicotine & Tobacco 2016 Annual Meeting Abstracts, Chicago, IL.

Featured Article: A Better Way to Quit - Fred Hutch Cancer Research Center 

Jonathan B. Bricker, PhD, Terry Bush, PhD, Susan M. Zbikowski, PhD, Laina D. Mercer, MS and Jaimee L. Heffner, PhD, (May, 2014). Randomized Trial of Telephone-Delivered Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Versus Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Smoking Cessation: A Pilot Study. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, Volume 16, Issue 11, Pp. 1446-1454

J. Bricker, C. Wyszynski, B. Comstock, JL Heffner, (October, 2013). Pilot randomized controlled trial of web-based acceptance and commitment therapy for smoking cessation. Nicotine & Tobacco Research Issue 15: 1756-64

Bricker, J.B., Mann, S., Marek, P.M., Liu, J.L., & Peterson, A.V. (2010). Telephone-delivered Acceptance & Commitment Therapy for adult smoking cessation: A feasibility study. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 12: 454-8.

Hernandez-Lopez, M.C., Luciano, C., Bricker, J.B., Roales-Nieto, J., G., & Montesinos, F. (2009). Acceptance & Commitment Therapy for smoking cessation: Preliminary study of its effectiveness in comparison with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 23: 723-730.

Elizabeth V. Gifford, et al. (2004). Acceptance-Based Treatment for Smoking Cessation. Behavior Therapy 35, 689–705.

Smoking Cessation Facts,  Data & Resources

Center for Disease Control (CDC) Smoking & Tobacco Use

American Cancer Society Smoking Cessation Guides

American Lung Association

Smoking Studies (Extensive Evidence-based and other non-clinical research)

Behavior Change - Habits And Assessing Your Readiness For Change

Featured:  White paper: Delivering On Your Good Intentions - The Foundations Of Habit-Based Behavioral Change, Elizabeth Fountain, PhD. Learn more

Charles Duhigg. (2014). The Power of Habit: Why We Do What We Do in Life and Business.

Stephen Covey. (2004). The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People.

Mark Manson. (2014). Learn how to change your habits.

Leslie Brokaw. (May, 2012). Are Habits More Powerful Than Decisions? Marketers Hope So. MIT Sloan Management Review blog.

James Clear. How to Stop Procrastinating on Your Goals by Using the “Seinfeld Strategy.” Transform Your Habits blog.

Thanh Pham. (June, 2012). How to Build New Habits with Mind Maps. Asian Efficiency.

Randy Dotinga and Kelly Malcom. (September, 2014). Small Steps to Big Health Change. Center for Advancing Health. 

 BJ Fogg, PhD, Stanford University. Behavior Wizard Tool.

 American Psychology Association (APA). Multiple educational sources

Bricker, J.B., & Tollison, S. (2011). Comparison of Motivational Interviewing with Acceptance & Commitment Therapy: A conceptual and clinical review. Behavioral and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 39: 541-549.

BJ Fogg, Founder, Persuasive Technology Lab, Stanford University. Behavior Model

Freedman, D.H. (2012, June). The perfected self. The Atlantic Monthly, 309(5), 42-52.

David T. Neal, Wendy Wood, and Jeffrey M. Quinn (August, 2006). Habits—A Repeat Performance, Current Directions in Psychological Science, Duke University. 15(4):198-202

DiClemente, CC. Addiction and change: how addictions develop and addicted people recover. New York: Guilford Press; 2003. ISBN 1-57230-057-4.

Dalton, A. N., & Spiller, S. A. (2012). Too much of a good thing: The benefits of implementation intentions depend on the number of goals. Journal of Consumer Research39(3), 600–614.

Gilbert. M.B., & Gilbert, T.F. (September, 1991). “What Skinner gave us.” Training, 28(9), 42-47.

Acceptance Commitment Therapy

Russell Harris. (October, 2009). Acceptance and commitment therapy teaches mindfulness skills within the context of values and committed action. Healthcare, Counselling and Psychotherapy Journal (HCPJ Vol9, No 4), a quarterly journal of the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy.

American Psychological Association. (2012). What you need to Know about Will-Power: The Psychological Science of Self-Control.

Russell Harris. (2012). Embracing your Demons: A Non-technical Overview of Acceptance Commitment Therapy (ACT).